• Aboriginal Heritage


    Protecting Aboriginal heritage

    Consultation with traditional owners and land councils is an integral part of the process of capturing Aboriginal heritage issues and concerns.

    In order to protect the Aboriginal heritage, the project team will work with the local Aboriginal community and with known databases to identify sites of interest and take necessary steps to protect Aboriginal cultural heritage sites.

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  • Air Quality


    The BIPL Project aims to minimise air emissions during construction and when operational. It will achieve this by implementing a range of dust abatement measures, use of suitably designed equipment, management strategies and operational procedures.

    Key air impacts

    A key air quality impact from the infrastructure is dust produced from earth-moving activities during construction, and the movement of vehicles along unsealed roads and tracks during dry conditions. The extent of the dust will vary, depending upon moisture, soil type and the current wind conditions. The infrastructure will not generate significant air emissions during its operational phase.

    The magnetite concentrates will be stored in covered storage to obviate any fugitive dust from the Offshore Port storage facilities. As the concentrates will contain a minimum of 8.5% water, little or no fugitive dust is anticipated during ship loading.

    In addition to dust there will be some exhaust emission from machinery used in the construction of the facility (e.g. bulldozers) and its operation. The Offshore Port may also generate small exhaust emissions from motors on the facility.

    Dust Reduction

    During the construction of the infrastructure, a range of measures will be implemented in order to reduce the amount of dust that will be emitted to the air including the reduction of speed limits near any residential dwellings during high dust conditions and spraying dusty work areas with water. Along the infrastructure routes, reinstating construction areas promptly following the completion of construction will assist in minimising dust.

    During the operational life of the project any linear infrastructure will only produce dust emissions when vehicles are traveling along the route for maintenance and inspection. This is not expected to be excessive as the routes will generally mirror the local roads.

    Other emissions

    The Offshore Port may generate its own backup power and will have a diesel or LPG powered generator on-board. This is likely to produce small amounts of exhaust emissions.

    Emissions from vehicles and machinery (diesel) will be emitted during operations. These emissions are expected to be limited as only machinery for use at the maintenance and operations base and small service vehicles are expected to be needed during the operational phase of the project.

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  • Biodiversity


    Biodiversity is the variety of all living things; the different plants, animals and microorganisms, the genetic information they contain and the ecosystems they form. Maintaining ecological biodiversity will be a key consideration for the BIPL. The environmental assessment will outline how we propose to manage potential impacts on plants and animals. The project area has avoided areas of known conservation significance, endangered ecological communities and areas known to be home to threatened species thereby minimising the impacts on plants and animals’ diversity.

    Communication with government, regulatory agencies and community stakeholders will be an important part of the process of addressing biodiversity issues in the environmental assessment.

    Potential Onshore Impacts

    In areas where the project's footprint is within cleared agricultural land where there is little remnant native vegetation to be found the project is expected to have a minimal impact on ecological biodiversity.

    Extensive vegetation cover exists in many areas. Detailed field studies will be required to both confirm the existing vegetation mapping and investigate areas where detailed ecosystem information is not available.

    Potential impacts from the construction of the linear infrastructure may include:

    • Vegetation clearing
    • Habitat disturbance
    • Disturbance to soil profiles
    • Introduction or the spreading noxious weed species

    Minimising Onshore Biodiversity Impacts

    The project team will aim to avoid as far as possible all known ecologically sensitive areas, endangered ecological communities and traveling stock routes containing remnant vegetation. In situations where avoiding these areas is not possible, a range of measures to reduce impacts will be put into practice.

    During construction, plant matter will be kept in the construction area, unless contaminated with noxious weeds. Wherever possible this material will be spread back over the area after construction to stabilise the ground and support the re-establishment of local vegetation.

    After construction has finished easements will be reinstated. Key landscape features and natural drainage lines will be restored as close to original forms as possible and any measures put in place to reduce erosion would remain until enough vegetation has grown to keep the soil stable.

    Such measures may include:

    • Minimise clearing of native vegetation as much as possible by effective planning of construction activities and location of construction access tracks
    • Introduce soil, weed and water management practices
    • Introduce procedures to protect native animals, including daily removal from pipeline trench during construction

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  • Crossing the Beach


    There are several potential methods for crossing a shore line or beach beach. One is open cut and the other is using horizontal directional drilling (HDD). Another is to trestle over the top of the shore line. At this point a preferred methodology has not been determined.

    In an open cut installation, a trench is cut through the beach and a pipe is then laid in the trench and it is backfilled. In this case a rock shore it may be required to cut through tough granite and through layers of calcrete in the soil. Once the trench has been backfilled erosion control measures are put in place at both the wave zone and the back beach.

    A HDD installation uses a drilling rig with a steerable head to drill a hole from well behind the beach and back out into the ocean. This hole is then reamed out to the required size to install the pipe by pulling it through from one end.

    No erosion control measures are required as this method does not disturb the beach or back bank. At some sites, rock hardness may obviate this alternative.

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  • Employment Opportunities


    The BIPL Project team is investigating ways to maximise employment opportunities for the local community. The project is moving from a concept stage to the Definitive Feasibility Study stage. Hence a greater understanding of the needs for the project is being developed. All positions will be advertised within the community.

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  • Magnetite Iron Ore


    The BIPL project is a multi-user bulk export facility that is designed to deliver Magnetite Iron Ore Concentrate (MIOC) from mining operations developed on the Braemar Iron Formation, however:

    What is Magnetite Iron Ore?

    For what is it used?

    How is its worth evaluated?

    Iron Ore is generally used by smelting operations to manufacture a product called pig iron, the base ingredient used in the production of steel. The Iron Ore mined in Australia can be broadly divided into two different types, Hematite and Magnetite. Hematite Iron Ore is found in the famous Pilbara region of Western Australia and the resulting product is commonly referred to as "direct shipping ore" due to its relatively high in-situ iron content of around 56% to 64%. This iron grade range means the mining operation does not usually need to process the ore as much as a magnetite iron ore before it can be shipped to its clients and the smelting operations can use it directly in their furnaces.

    Magnetite Iron Ore usually has a lower in-situ iron content in its natural form and requires the mining operator to process the ore into a concentrate. The Magnetite Iron Ore concentrate presents some advantages to the steel manufacturers in using this product. Magnetite Iron Ore releases less carbon emissions through the production process and has less contaminants which makes it ideal to produce premium quality steel. It also generates heat when being agglomerated by pelletising or sintering, reducing energy costs and gas emissions.

    The concentration process is well understood as it has been used for many decades and usually follows a process of crushing, screening, grinding, magnetic separation, filtering and drying. The resulting concentrate is similar to a fine powder which will be mixed with water and the slurry pumped to the Offshore Processing, Storage and Offloading facility.

    In the Evaluation of Magnetite Deposits - DTR is the key

    OLARY MAGNETITE PTY LTD - an example

    It has now been established that the mining DTR grade (DTR = Davis Tube Recovery) at Olary will be 21%. This has very significant positive implications for the project as summarised below.


    Production of 1 million tonne of concentrate from ore of DTR 21% versus DTR 14%

    • 4.76 million tonne ore mined and processed V’s 7.2 million tonne (50% more)
    • If stripping ratio is 0.5 to 1, total rock mined is 7.2 V’s 10.8 million tonne (+3.6 million tonne)
    • Higher DTR = Lower power & water usage = Lower Cost Operations
    • Higher DTR = Lower total volumed mined = Lower Cost Operations
    • Olary NE 12 orebody - DTR is 21.2%

    The higher the DTR grade at which we can mine, the better our competitive position.

    Figure: Typical Davis Tube Measuring Device

    A description of the most important features of DTR follow.

    In the magnetite mining and concentrate production business, the universally accepted measure of the percentages of magnetite in the ore and the grade of that magnetite when recovered a concentrate is determined by the Davis Tube Recovery (DTR) device. This device gives a good measure of the percentage of magnetite that will be recovered from the rock in an industrial magnetic separation plant. The DTR device actually does this by separating the magnetite (the DTR concentrate) from the rock mass sample. Subsequently the chemical composition of the DTR concentrate can be determined. In summary, the DTR process gives the percentage of magnetite that can be recovered from the rock mass and also allows for the determination of the chemical composition of the recovered DTR magnetite concentrate.

    Inexperienced geologists do not always understand how to assess magnetite as an iron mineral commodity. They sometimes do not follow the universally accepted DTR procedure in respect of their exploration drilling. Initially they do only chemical analysis for total iron. Later in the program they gain knowledge and begin using the standard DTR approach. In an attempt to fudge results after the event for the large proportion of samples for which they have no DTR results, they perform measurements of magnetic susceptibility on these samples and come up with a confection which they call e-DTR. They correlate the magnetism measurements (e-DTR) with the DTR on samples for which they have DTR. For reverse circulation drilling samples, the correlation is always very poor. For diamond drill core samples it is not as bad. However, with this e-DTR confection we only get a rough estimate of the quantity of magnetite in the rock. As no magnetite concentrate is produced no measure or estimate can be made of the chemical composition of the magnetite in the rock and hence the result is at best a guesstimate only of the likely magnetite percentage in the sample. No analysis of the concentrates is possible because there is no concentrate. This e-DTR is not useful under the JORC code for anything beyond inferred resources. It most certainly cannot be used to declare proved and probable reserves as required for any kind of Feasibility Study.

    It has been of fundamental importance to ensure our team has this deep and complete understanding of magnetite and how to assess it from an ore resource, reserve and recovery perspective.


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  • Noise


    The BIPL project is made up of three key elements, the offshore processing, storage and ship loading facility in Spencer Gulf, an infrastructure corridor where slurry and return/process water pipelines, Railroad, transmission lines, roads, and communication cables, and associated infrastructure such as pump stations. The infrastructure corridor connects the mines of the Braemar region to the offshore port.

    The construction of the facilities within the infrastructure corridor such as pipelines will have noise impacts during construction but are expected to have minimal impact during operation. The offshore port is unlikely to have a noise impact onshore, due to the vessels being moored 4km offshore. Pump stations and other associated infrastructure will generate noise when operating and during construction. The pump stations will be housed in buildings and designed to meet noise regulations.

    Noise from Construction

    In regards to any pipelines, noise impacts will mainly occur during the construction period when using bulk earth moving equipment such as graders, bulldozers and trenching machines for digging the pipeline ditch. There will be some blasting activity in a few areas where the pipe will need to be buried in rock.

    At any one place these impacts would be temporary as pipeline construction continually moves along the pipeline route with a number of small crews working through an area.

    It is anticipated that most construction activities will take place between 7.00am to 6.00pm although some activities, such as drilling under a road, may need to extend into the night. The level of noise would depend on the type of construction activity and its distance away from noise sensitive locations.

    As any pipeline will be mostly buried there will be very little noise during the operational period of the pipeline and any noise would come from a vehicle being driven over the route for routine inspections.

    There will be noise from an increased number of trains where the ARTC railroad is used as part of the transportation network..

    Reducing Noise

    To minimise the potential noise impacts on communities and landowners the first strategy is to locate the infrastructure away from dwellings and other sensitive locations (such as schools). Where avoidance has not been possible certain measures will be developed to minimise impacts.

    These measures include developing an ongoing program with those people potentially affected, particularly to inform them about any possible night time activities. Site training will also be required so employees will know what is needed to minimise disruptive noise and the use of buildings and structures to attenuate noise to acceptable levels.

    There may also be noise generated during operations associated with vehicles and machinery moving along infrastructure routes for maintenance work. This may be more frequent in the first year or two to ensure that the pipeline route is properly rehabilitated, but after that period surface inspections would be less frequent (about once every 6 months).

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  • Safety


    Safety is a critical component of the construction and operation of the project. The BIPL project team will consider the risks and hazards that could potentially affect the community and construction crews during the construction and operation of the project.

    The project will be designed and constructed according to the relevant guidelines for each component of the project. The pipeline will be constructed in accordance with the ASME Pipeline Standard. The Offshore Port is to be constructed and operated under standard maritime rules and guidelines.

    Potential risks and hazards that could affect the project and human safety will be considered and identified through a comprehensive risk assessment.

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  • Selecting linear infrastructure routes


    The BIPL project team will be contacting each landholder along the proposed route of any linear infrastructure (Roads, Pipelines [water, slurry, gas], Power Lines, Rail) to discuss the nature of the project and as required, to seek access for studies and to help determine an optimal route. Braemar Infrastructure will discuss route options and easements with landholders where in is proposed that the liner infrastructure crosses properties.

    In selecting linear infrastructure routes between any two end points, the BIPL project team will endeavour to balance the length of the proposed route (and therefore cost) with the environmental, social and engineering constraints between the two end points

    The method used to select any route is to identify end points, then to find suitable route options taking into account topographical, social and other constraints.

    Issues that are considered include:

    • Disruption to landowners - the northern region of Yorke Peninsula is primarily agricultural land developed from crop production.
    • Topographical features - the Barunga and Flinders Ranges represented topographical barriers. Therefore, it would be preferred to traverse the Ranges at one of the gaps.
    • Infrastructure - minimising the number of infrastructure crossings avoids disruption and use conflicts
    • Population centres - keeping the away from townships minimises any disturbance to concentrated population areas
    • Length - keeping the route as direct as possible minimises costs
    • Construction - avoiding areas which represent a constraint for construction (e.g. watercourse crossing, areas of rock) and
    • Environment - minimising the impact on areas of conservation significance, especially native vegetation.

    Preferred routes will be further refined as the project moves forward.

    A precautionary approach will be taken to define route study areas. This means that the routes will be designed to avoid risks of serious or irreversible environmental damage with a preference to run through already disturbed areas and use existing rights of way.

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  • Sustainability


    BIPL’s project embraces its environmental and social responsibilities as an essential part of the business and its interactions with all of its stakeholders. The BIPL is committed to the implementation of innovative, sustainable practices throughout all facets of our organisation.

    The BIPL project team intends to incorporate sustainability principles into the planning and operation of the project in order to have a positive impact on the environmental, social and economic aspects of the development. The project has already undergone a SUSOP (Sustainability Operations) workshop in the concept phase to determine what ideas could be brought to the project that enhanced the sustainability of the project, for further investigation.

    Further ideas will be sought from the local community and stakeholder as the project is progressed.

    Some examples of the ideas from the project teamsworkshop included:

    • Creating habitat within the offshore exclusion zone
    • Revegetating linear infrastructure corridors with native vegetation where possible
    • Sourcing power from the local wind farm as appropriate to the Project’s needs
    • Installation of solar panels as appropriate to the Project’s needs
    • Rain harvesting where feasible
    • Water minimisation strategies - dry processing - paste thickening
    • Continual community engagement

    Sustainable initiatives will be integrated into the project's development plans as the project advances.

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  • Water Resources


    Surface and Ground water are vital resources to South Australia and the region in which Braemar Infrastructure operates.

    Potable Surface and Groundwater will not be used for industrial purposes in this project. All water requirements for processing minerals will be met by pumping saline ground water or sea water to producers. Any water discharged to the environment will be retained within managed residue storage facilities and evaporated. Waste salt will be retained in the residue storage facilities. Strict controls will be implemented to ensure that groundwater and surface water resources are not impacted by saline water imported from the sea.

    The project construction and operations phases will be subject to strict controls to ensure that no unintentional releases impact groundwater or surface water. The project will also be the subject of regulatory oversight to ensure these requirements are met..

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  • Land Access and Easements


    The BIPL project team will be contacting each landholder along the proposed route of any linear infrastructure (Roads, Pipelines [water, slurry, gas], Power Lines, Rail) to discuss the nature of the project and as required, to seek access for studies and to help determine an optimal route. Braemar Infrastructure will discuss route options and an easement with landholders where in is proposed that the liner infrastructure crosses properties.

    Preferred routes will be further refined as the project moves forward.

    A precautionary approach will be taken to define route study areas. This means that the routes will be designed to avoid risks of serious or irreversible environmental damage with a preference to run through already disturbed areas and use existing rights of way.

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